Who was trained?
12 trainers from each district were trained from 30 September to 5 October 2003 in Problinggo as key trainers to run the School Based Management program in 20 target schools. They were trained in three areas: School Based Management, Community Participation and Active, Creative, Effective and Joyful Learning (often known by its Indonesian acronym, PAKEM) or called Contextual Learning in Junior Secondary Schools. The 12 trainers consisted of 6 trainers for primary schools including MI, (Islamic primary schools) and 6 trainers for Junior Secondary Schools and MTs (Islamic Junior Secondary schools). They were accompanied by two members of staff of the District Education Office of each district who will manage and monitor the implementation of the program.
The Characteristics of School Based Management
As part of the training program the participants discussed the characteristics of a good school in school management, community participation and the teaching learning processes. Participants from each district formulated their perception after visiting and observing a number of primary and junior secondary schools in Probolinggo. Below is the result of discussion by the participants from Pati on the characteristics of school based management.
Characteristics of school based management :
(The result of discussions by participants from Pati District)
- The vision and mission of the school are formulated by the principal, teachers, representative of students, school alumni and stakeholders
- There is a school development plan based on this vision and mission
- A school budget plan, in line with school development plan, is developed transparently by the principal, teachers, and school committee.
- School autonomy is realised, as shown by the school becoming more self supporting and focused on meeting local needs
- There is participatory and democratic decision.
- The school is open to criticism, input, and suggestions from anyone to improve the program
- Everyone at school is committed to carrying out the agreed vision and mission
- Using all the potential of school stakeholders to achieve the goal
- There is a working atmosphere conducive to improving school performance
- There is an ability to create a sense of pride among staff and local community
- There is transparency and public accountability in implementing all activities
Active Learning - Contextual Learning
The main objective of SBM program is the improvement of the quality of the teaching and learning processes. For this purpose, the trainers have been trained on PAKEM (Active, Creative, Effective and Joyful Learning) which in the secondary school is usually called Contextual Learning. This way of learning emphasizes developing studentsí competencies through learning by doing.
Besides discussing the characteristics of active learning, the participants developed lesson scenarios and did teaching practice at primary and secondary schools in Probolinggo.
The teaching practice carried out by the participants was impressive. In almost all classes, they managed to plan interesting student activities that made the students interact and think. Some students asked for this kind of activities to happen every day. Pictures and stories on the teaching practices are shown below:
Teaching Practice at SLTP Wonomerto 1
The emphasis on active learning means giving more activities for the students to do by themselves. While the students are carrying out the activities, the teacher acts as a facilitator helping and guiding the students.